Internet-Based System for Generating and Delivering
WeBWorK is an internet-based
system for generating and delivering homework problems to students. It
increases the effectiveness of traditional homework as a learning tool by:
- Providing students with immediate feedback on the validity of their
answers and giving students the opportunity to correct mistakes while they
are still thinking about the problem. As one student said, "I can fix
my mistakes while [the] problem is fresh in my mind."
students with individualized versions of problems which means that instructors
can encourage students to work together; yet each student must develop an answer
to his or her own version of the problem.
These are important educational advantages, and WeBWorK is a tool designed to
conveniently deliver these advantages to large numbers of students. First used
in a single course with 29 students in
the fall of 1996, WeBWorK currently serves 900 students at Rochester in seven
from pre-calculus to second semester calculus and physics. This semester for
the first time,
WeBWorK is being used at other institutions. Indiana, John Hopkins, and SUNY Stony
Brook are teaching courses using WeBWorK. Indiana has approximately 1950 students in
WeBWorK courses, John Hopkins 200, and Stony Brook 90.
WeBWorK has been awarded the
1999 International Conference on Technology in Collegiate Mathemnatics (ICTCM) Award for
Excellence and Innovation with the Use of Technology in Collegiate Mathematics.
Anyone can try WeBWorK for himself or herself by connecting to
actual courses at http://www.math.rochester.edu/webwork.
Professor Michael Gage (firstname.lastname@example.org) or Professor Arnold Pizer
(email@example.com) for further information.
Student Reaction to WeBWorK
Immediate feedback is a
key educational advantage of WeBWorK as recognized by the students themselves.
When asked on anonymous surveys:
Does the immediate feedback provided by the WeBWorK system enhance the
educational value of solving homework problems? Please provide a number between
1 and 5 where 1 means strongly disagree while 5 means strongly agree.
most students responded with a 5 and made comments such as:
- "Yes. It was very helpful to know if I was wrong and be able to work
the problem through until I knew and understood how to get it right."
- "I understand the problems better when given the ability to correct them."
- "I think it’s a better way to learn."
- "I really like finding
out right away and being able to rework a problem I got wrong."
loved it. It helped me develop on my skills."
- "Significant increase
in motivation [thus] giving students more confidence"
- "It definitely
does. I think this is the strongest point of W.W."
- "It was helpful in
learning from mistakes & seeing mistakes."
- "Very much so. I don't
have to wait for lecture to see if I'm doing it right."
- "Yes. It makes
you want to redo it; after finding an answer, you feel accomplished, immediate
feedback makes sure you have accomplished something."
When asked on anonymous surveys whether they preferred a section using
WeBWorK or a section using a traditional homework system with hand written and
hand-graded solutions, almost all preferred WeBWorK sections.
List of current WeBWorK features
WeBWorK’s features make it uniquely suitable for
authoring mathematics, physics and engineering problems including problems from
calculus, trigonometry and upper-level secondary mathematics courses. The
following innovative features stand out:
- Advanced mathematics problems can be authored and displayed and printed
with typeset quality.
- WeBWorK produces similar but individualized
problems for each student. This makes WeBWorK particularly effective in a group
learning setting, since students can collaborate without copying. WeBWorK
remembers each student’s problems, so they can connect to WeBWorK, attempt a
problem, logout and give the problem more thought, and then reconnect to WeBWorK
to attempt their own individualized problem again.
- Flexible mechanisms
are available for handling numeric, symbolic, and string answers. Numeric
answers may (at the instructor’s option) allow elementary functions such as
3*sin(pi/2)+ln(e^2) which WeBWorK will evaluate, or the instructor can require
that the student enter a numeric answer such as 5. Symbolic answers allow for
questions such as: enter an anti-derivative for
x2sin(x3). Some correct answers are .3333*sin(x^3) or
(1/3)*sin(x^3) + 7; however (cos(x))^2 + sin(x^3)/3 + (sin(x))^2 is also
correct and WeBWorK will accept that too. WeBWorK will accept any
correct answer. String answers allow for T/F, matching, multiple-choice,
and short answer questions.
- An instructor can also extend the answer
routines to compare a student’s answer with WeBWorK’s answer in new ways without
modifying the core of WeBWorK.
- Two partial credit grading mechanisms are provided for scoring multi-part questions.
Instructors can also write custom grading mechanisms.
- For physics problems, WeBWorK can check
units attached to numeric answers and make the proper conversions.
- Graphs of functions can be generated "on the fly" by a single
statement, enabling one to ask individualized questions involving graphs for
- The pg language developed for writing WeBWorK problems
is built on the widely used scripting language Perl. Mathematical formulas can
be written in TeX (or LaTeX), the mathematical typesetting language, and as with
TeX, ease-of-use has been added in the form of macro packages. Even complicated
numerical subroutines can be included to help check the answers to problems.
Novice problem writers will use these macro packages to write problems, while
expert problem writers can extend the capabilities of the language by writing
new macro packages. As the new HTML standard syntax for specifying mathematics
emerges, it can also be used in writing problems. No change to the WeBWorK
system will be necessary.
- Because of Perl's flexibility, it is fairly
easy to embed other languages into the pg language. For example, we
translator which converts physics problems already written for CAPA to the pg
language so that they can be used under WeBWorK.
Java applets can all be embedded in WeBWorK problems in order to enhance their
In addition to these features, which make WeBWorK especially suited for
mathematics education, WeBWorK provides standard features found in most
CGI/database education solutions.
- Students receive immediate feedback about the accuracy of their
- Students can access WeBWorK from any computer connected to the
internet, and instructors can use any computer and browser for management of the
- The instructor or TA can view the
precise version of the problem seen by each individual student, making it easy
to answer specific questions from a student via e-mail or in person.
- All pages have a feedback button that sends an e-mail message directly to
the instructor(s) (or whomever the instructor designates). Students find this a
convenient way to communicate with their instructor, usually requesting help on
a particular point. Most student pages also have a help button that provides
specific instructions and hints.
- Problem sets are graded
automatically, and the results are easily exported to and imported from
spreadsheet programs such as Excel.
- The instructor can easily find out
the current progress of a class or an individual in correctly completing any
- Instructors can send e-mail to an entire class reporting
individual homework grades, exam grades etc.
- WeBWorK allows great
flexibility in administering individual homework. For example, an individual
student can be given an extension on an assignment without granting an extension
for the entire class. Or an individual student can be granted extra attempts on
a problem that has a limit on the number of allowed attempts.
The flexibility of WeBWorK allows its use by instructors with very different
teaching styles. For the first year calculus courses at Rochester, we have set
up WeBWorK so that:
- Students can attempt a problem as many times as they wish until the due
date (unless the instructor desires to place a limit on the number of allowed
attempts). Each problem in a set can have a different limit on the number of
allowed attempts. For example, instructors may wish to limit the number of
attempts on T/F questions while allowing unlimited attempts on problems
requiring numeric and symbolic answers.
- Problems can have
individualized solutions and/or hints (e.g., solutions can use the same
individualized constants each student sees).
- After the due date,
students can review the homework, including the answers expected by the
instructor. Solutions to problems, if provided by the instructor, are also
available after the due date. Students frequently work old assignments to
review for exams.